Objekt „oumuamua“

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This very deep combined image shows ns interstellar object ‘Oumuamua at the center des the image. It is surrounded von the trails des faint stern that room smeared as die telescopes tracked die moving comet. Credit: ESO/K. Meech et al.

Du schaust: Objekt „oumuamua“


Discovery

The zuerst known interstellar object kommen sie visit our solar system, 1I/2017 U1 ‘Oumuamua, was discovered Oct. 19, 2017 von the University des Hawaii’s Pan-STARRS1 telescope, funded by oered.org’s Near-Earth Object observations (NEOO) Program, which finds and tracks asteroids and comets in Earth’s neighborhood. While initially classified as a comet, observations revealed no signs von cometary task after the slingshotted past die Sun ~ above Sept. 9, 2017 weist a blistering speed of 196,000 miles von hour (87.3 kilometers per second). It was briefly share as in asteroid until neu measurements found it was accelerating slightly, a sign it behaves much more like a comet.


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Artist's concept von interstellar object1I/2017 U1 ('Oumuamua) as it happen through die solar system after that discovery in October 2017. Ns aspect ratio von up zu 10:1 zu sein unlike that of any object seen an our own solar system. Image Credit: European southerly Observatory / M. Kornmesser

Overview

The zuerst confirmed thing from another stern to visit our solar system, this interstellar interloper appears to be a rocky, cigar-shaped object through a rather reddish hue. The object, named ‘Oumuamua by its discoverers, is up zu one-quarter mile (400 meters) long and highly-elongated—perhaps 10 times as lang as it ist wide. That element ratio ist greater than that of any asteroid or comet observed in our solar system to date. While its elongated shape is quite surprising, und unlike objects seen bei our solar system, it may provide neu clues into just how other solar systems formed.

The observations suggest this unusual object had been wandering through die Milky Way, unattached zu any star system, weil das hundreds von millions von years before its wahrscheinlichkeit encounter with our stern system.

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“For years we’ve theorized that such interstellar objects space out there, und now―for the zuerst time―we oase direct evidence they exist,” said thomas Zurbuchen, combine administrator weil das oered.org’s Science aufgabe Directorate bei Washington, an November 2017.


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Immediately after ~ its discovery, telescopes around the world, consisting of ESO’s Very huge Telescope bei Chile, were dubbed into action to measure die object’s orbit, brightness und color. Urgency zum viewing indigenous ground-based telescopes was vital kommen sie get die best data.

Combining the images from the FORS instrument on ns ESO telescope utilizing four various filters through those of other huge telescopes, a team von astronomers led by karen Meech of the Institute weil das Astronomy an Hawaii uncovered that ‘Oumuamua varies in brightness by a factor of 10 as it spins on its axis every 7.3 hours. No well-known asteroid or comet from ours solar system varies dafür widely an brightness, with such a big ratio between length und width. Die most elongated objects we have seen kommen sie date space no more than three times longer 보다 they room wide.

“This unusually big variation an brightness means that die object is highly elongated: about ten mal as long as it is wide, through a complex, convoluted shape,” stated Meech. “We deshalb found the it had a reddish color, similar zu objects an the outer solar system, und confirmed the it zu sein completely inert, without die faintest hint von dust roughly it.”

These properties indicate that ‘Oumuamua ist dense, composed von rock und possibly metals, has no water or ice, and that that surface was reddened due to die effects des irradiation indigenous cosmic rays end hundreds von millions von years.

A couple of large ground-based telescopes continued zu track the fading object as it receded from our planet. Two of oered.org’s an are telescopes (Hubble und Spitzer) tracked die object traveling about 85,700 miles über hour (38.3 kilometers von second) family member to ns Sun. That outbound path is about 20 degrees above die plane des planets that orbit the Sun. The object happen Mars’s orbit about Nov. 1 and will pass Jupiter’s orbit bei May von 2018. It will travel past Saturn’s orbit in January 2019; together it leaves our solar system, ‘Oumuamua wollen head zum the constellation Pegasus.

Preliminary orbital calculations imply that die object came from die approximate direction von the bright stern Vega, in the north constellation des Lyra. However, that took dafür long weil das the interstellar object to make die journey―even at ns speed of about 59,000 miles über hour (26.4 kilometers von second)―that Vega was not near that position when die ‘Oumuamua was there around 300,000 years ago.

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Astronomers estimate that in interstellar thing similar zu ‘Oumuamua passes through die inner solar system about once von year, yet they space faint und hard zu spot und have to be missed till now. It ist only newly that survey telescopes, such together Pan-STARRS1, are an effective enough to oase a gelegenheit to uncover them.

“What a fascinating exploration this is!” said paulus Chodas, direktors of ns Center for Near-Earth Object lernen at oered.org’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. “It’s a strange visitor native a faraway star system, shaped choose nothing we’ve ever seen an our very own solar system neighborhood.”

How Oumuamua got its Name

The object was officially called 1I/2017 U1 von the international Astronomical gewerkschaftler (IAU), which zu sein responsible zum granting main names to bodies an the solar system and beyond. An addition to ns technical name, the Pan-STARRS mannschaft dubbed the ‘Oumuamua (pronounced oh MOO-uh MOO-uh), which is Hawaiian for “a messenger native afar getting here first.”

Additional Resources

Small Asteroid or Comet 'Visits' indigenous Beyond die Solar System:https://www.oered.org.gov/feature/jpl/small-asteroid-or-comet-visits-from-beyond-the-solar-system

For much more on oered.org’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office:https://www.oered.org.gov/planetarydefense

To clock a oered.org Planetary Defense videos on international Asteroid Day:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYO-mpoC8_s

Interstellar thing FAQs:https://www.oered.org.gov/planetarydefense/faq/interstellar​