Out Of Africa Modell

see ORCID ProfileFrancesco d’Errico, wilhelm E. Banks, Dan L. Warren, Giovanni Sgubin, karen van Niekerk, Christopher Henshilwood, Anne-Laure Daniau, and see ORCID ProfileMaría Fernanda sánchez Goñi
oered.org July 25, 2017 114 (30) 7869-7876; zuerst published July 24, 2017; https://doi.org/10.1073/oered.org.1620752114
aCNRS, UMR 5199–De la Préhistoire à l’Actuel: Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie, Université juni Bordeaux, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France;
aCNRS, UMR 5199–De la Préhistoire à l’Actuel: Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie, Université außerdem Bordeaux, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France;
dBiocomplexity and Biodiversity Unit, Okinawa Institute des Science und Technology, Okinawa 904-0495 Japan;
eCNRS, UMR 5805–Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux, Université außerdem Bordeaux, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France;
fInstitute for Archaeology, History, Culture, and Religion, University von Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway;
fInstitute for Archaeology, History, Culture, und Religion, University von Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway;
eCNRS, UMR 5805–Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux, Université de Bordeaux, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France;
eCNRS, UMR 5805–Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques et Continentaux, Université de Bordeaux, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France;
gÉcole Pratique von Hautes Études, L’Université dach Recherche paris Sciences et Lettres, 75014 Paris, France

Edited by Marcus W. Feldman, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and approved may 16, 2017 (received for review january 31, 2017)


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Abstract

The historical record mirrors that typically human cultural traits emerged hinweisen different times, in different parts of the world, and among various hominin taxa. This pattern suggests that your emergence zu sein the outcome von complex und nonlinear evolutionary trajectories, influenced von environmental, demographic, and social factors, the need kommen sie be understood und traced punkt regional scales. Ns application von predictive algorithms making use of archaeological und paleoenvironmental dünn allows one kommen sie estimate die ecological niches occupied by past person populations und identify niche transforms through time, for this reason providing die possibility of investigating relationships betwee cultural innovations and possible niche shifts. über using together methods zu examine two vital southern Africa historical cultures, the still Bay <76–71 thousand years prior to present (ka)> and the Howiesons Poort (HP; 66–59 ka), we determine a niche change characterized by a significant expansion bei the breadth von the HP environmental niche. This expansion is coincident through aridification emerging across marine Isotope phase 4 (ca.

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72–60 ka) and especially pronounced punkt 60 ka. We argue that this niche shift was made possible von the development von a flexible technological system, reliant ~ above composite tools und cultural transmission methods based more on “product copying” fairly than “process copying.” These results counter the one niche/one human being taxon equation. They indicate that what renders our cultures, and probably the cultures des other members of our lineage, unique ist their flexibility and ability zu produce innovations that permit a population to change its environmental niche.


Research on pet behavior has actually made it clear that society represents a second inheritance system that may oase changed the dynamics of entstehen on a wide scale (1⇓–3). Understanding how this procedure has influenced the evolution of our genus ist a major challenge bei paleoanthropology. In what ways, and through what phases of evolutionary history, has actually human culture extended beyond society seen an other species? Are the cultural adaptations und associated social innovations that us observe in the historical record the direct consequence of our biological evolution, or room they die outcome of mechanisms mostly independent des it? in our lineage, if social innovations were directly linked zu classic Darwinian evolution processes, such as isolation, arbitrarily mutation, selection, und speciation, one would suppose a clear correspondence betwee the emergence von a new species and a connected set von novel cultural behaviors. über shaping a new hominin species, natural an option would carry out this species with a neu cognitive setup resulting in the capacity weil das particular social innovations or behaviors. Together a mechanism would provide the possibility zum cultural variability but would small its range des expression to ns species’ biologically dictated potential. Although part would blieb argue the there zu sein a direct link between cultural behavior und hominin taxonomy and, as a consequence, that the typically human an additional inheritance system only arised with our species, archaeological and paleogenetic research carried out over ns past 20 y challenges such a view.

First, zum periods 4⇓–6), therefore blurring die concept of fossil types that many paleoanthropologists had bei the past wie man interpreting morphological differences betwee human remains. Each new round des publications concerning paleogenetics reflects that we are faced with a facility network von genetic relationships fairly than distinct und simple lines of evolutionary descent. There zu sein no reason zu assume the such a pattern did not characterize other phases des our lineage’s evolution.

Second, historical discoveries nur that die cultural innovations usually seen as reflecting modern cognition and behavior did notfall emerge together a einzel package an conjunction with ns appearance von our species in Africa. We recognize that AMHs emerged an Africa between 200 and 160 ka (7⇓–9), but some actions considered as “modern” space present in Africa before this speciation event. Ochre usage appears at around 300 ka (10), und laminar blade production zu sein observed possibly as beforehand as 500 ka (11). Various other modern social traits are only observed in the African historical record after ca. 100 ka. Such zu sein the situation with heating des stone zu facilitate knapping or retouching, pressure-flaked bifacial projectile points, microlithic armatures, mastic-facilitated hafting of stone tools, officially bone tools, abstract engravings, the production des paint and pigment containers, mitarbeiter ornaments, und primary burials (12⇓⇓–15). Furthermore, plenty of key cultural innovations are existing outside Africa well before AMH dispersal. In Europe, Neanderthals used pigment hinweisen many sites über at the very least 250–200 ka. They also used facility lithic technologies, composite tools, and complex hafting techniques by at the very least 180 ka (16). At Bruniquel, France, Neanderthals broke and moved four tons von stalagmites kommen sie build a circular framework deep within a cavern 176 ka (17). At a number of sites, starting at 130 ka, they offered raptor claws and feathers, probably zum symbolic tasks (18, 19). They made abstract designs top top a variety of media (20, 21). Neanderthals in the close to East und Europe engaged an extremely early bei a variety von funerary practices, including deliberate burials with simple grave goods. The belastung Neanderthals in Italy and France produced formal bone tools. They deshalb produced a variety of personal ornaments consisting of animal teeth, fossils, und marine shells, some of which were colored through ochre (22, 23). Additionally, diverted occurrences of innovative cultural traits are taped at much older sites bei Europe und Asia (24), and well-established technologies (e.g., Middle kies Age shell beads) disappear abruptly from ns archaeological record und similar behaviors letztere reappear in different forms and sometimes on various media (14, 25).

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This evidence demonstrates the typically modern-day human cultural traits emerged at different times, an different parts of the world, and among various hominin taxa. Together taxa show up more und more kommen sie be the phenotypic expression of a largely shared, plastic cognition (26, 27), und the emergence von typically human being innovations appears to be the result des complex and nonlinear evolution trajectories the need to be understood und traced hinweisen regional scales.

It ist clear that cultural innovations were triggered by several interconnected und dynamic factors, likely biological, environmental, und cultural. Because speciation does notfall appear to schutz played a role in the emergence von key innovations, us need kommen sie explore die potential zum relationships betwee biology und culture weist the population level, and particularly in ~ those past African populations that zuerst developed habits that included suites des these traits. Such in endeavor, however, zu sein handicapped on the biological side by a sporadic Upper Pleistocene hominin fossil record, the absence von pre-Holocene paleogenetic data, und a long history of human presence und intracontinental dispersals the complicate interpretations von modern genetic data. Understanding just how AMHs to be biologically structured an the Middle stone Age is also hampered von the reality that, as recently shown von genetic analyses (6, 28) highlighting die introgression of archaic gene into die African gene pool, they to be certainly not ubiquitous across the continent. To overcome such limitations, research study has concentrated on far better defining die nature und chronology des the cultural entities that may reflect past population structure und distributions (29, 30), an addition kommen sie documenting die complexity of innovations recorded in the Middle abwesend Age and exploring their social und cognitive effects (31⇓–33). Others schutz attempted kommen sie identify a correspondence betwee environmental or climatic variability und the emergence von cultural innovations an the hope des identifying causal links (34⇓⇓⇓–38). These attempts, however, schutz no design means, except recurrence, v which to verify the hypothesis that climate may oase influenced culture, to identify ns suites of environmental parameters (i.e., ns ecological niche) in ~ which every archaeological society operated, or zu evaluate just how these relationship varied through space und time. Ns emergence des key cultural innovations in our lineage may reflect changes in the nature of such relationships. Identifying und disentangling such relationships is a vital challenge zum the associated disciplines. Die failure to do so may result bei oversimplified scenarios. Zum example, Ziegler et al. (38) finish that cultural innovations during ns Middle kies Age in southern Africa were triggered über periods of humidity that produced greater levels des biomass and consequent increases an human population density. This scenario, however, just relies on die mean age of each culture and climatic conditions damit verbundenen with those means, und it does notfall take right into consideration die full age range von each recognized historical culture. Furthermore, their modell insinuates hiatuses in the historical record following die post-Howiesons Poort (HP) that are not seen in most southern African archaeological sequences.

In a previous study, we stressed ns need to consider die relationship betwee past human being cultures and environment as a dynamic procedure that occurred hinweisen a local level (39). We said that kommen sie do so, one needs kommen sie develop heuristic devices that enable the quantitative comparison and evaluation of individual cultural trajectories, their verbunden behavioral changes through time, and the mechanisms the operated behind such trends. This method may allow zum the identification des points bei time throughout which human cultures substantially reorganized their 2nd inheritance systems, thus moving closer zu the system characteristic of historically known und present-day populations.

A regional social trajectory tun können be conceived von as a succession des cultural packages, which we term cohesive adaptive systems. A cohesive adaptive system is a social entity characterized über shared and transmitted expertise reflected von a recognizable suite des cultural traits that a population uses zu operate within both cultural und environmental contexts (39). This concept differs from ns concept of “technocomplex” or “archaeological culture” generally used an archaeology, in that exploited umgebung conditions (i.e., ns ecocultural niche) contribute kommen sie the definition of a past cultural adaption. Wie man faced with successive climate changes, a cohesive adaptive system tun können conserve, expand, or contract its eco-friendly niche, through “ecological niche” gift defined bei the Grinnellian feeling as the environmental und resources problems suitable zum a species or population (40). Relevant cultural traits, and the way an which they were transmitted, may deshalb evolve bei such situations und highlight significant changes an the way an which culture influenced person populations. Research study strategies schutz been developed kommen sie investigate such interactions.

Predictive algorithms, initially created in the field of ecology, space able to estimate ns ecological niche occupied von a past cohesive adaptive system (i.e., the ecocultural niche) von using die geographic locations of archaeological web page where ns cohesive adaptive system has to be recognized along with chronologically relevant paleoenvironmental data. Using these data, ns predictive algorithms erste identify the environmental parameters mutual among die archaeological sites and define die relationships between these parameters. These relationships room then used kommen sie estimate a cohesive adaptive system’s environmental niche. One more important capacity of these algorithms ist that they can be used to examine niches bolzen time periods, thereby permitting one zu determine even if it is or notfall successive populations exploited different niches. Von comparing the zutat cultures of two or an ext successive cohesive adaptive systems, and taking right into account umwelt frameworks within which they operated, one can evaluate whether or not cultural technologies were a an answer to environmental fluctuations. Equally together important, one can identify the degree of resilience des a cohesive adaptive system to environmental change.

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The goal von this study ist to use this approach zu two key Middle kies Age historical cultures, the ausblüten Bay (SB) and the HP des southern Africa. Die SB to represent the erste known social adaptation an which technological und symbolic innovations des a complexity equivalent to die innovations seen in modern hunter-gatherers shows up as a coherent and recognizable package. After a possible hiatus, us observe a different archaeological culture, termed die HP, characterized über dramatically different und simplified lithic technology, also as by markedly various symbolic inhaltsstoff culture. The available archaeological and paleoenvironmental datasets von this duration are von sufficient resolution to make this period von the Middle kies Age in ideal laboratory zum exploring how commonly human behavioral packages arose und evolved bei one certain region und for identifying potential mechanisms at work.