Sars cov-2

All viruses, consisting of SARS-CoV-2, die virus that reasons COVID-19, adjust over time. Many changes oase little kommen sie no impact on the virus’ properties. However,some changesmay affect die virus’s properties, together ashow easilyitspreads,the associateddiseaseseverity, or ns performance of vaccines, therapeutic medicines, diagnostic tools, or various other public health and social measures.

Du schaust: Sars cov-2, bei collaboration withpartners,expert networks,national authorities, institutions und researchershave beenmonitoring and assessingthe entstehen of SARS-CoV-2since January2020.Duringlate2020, die emergence von variants the posedan boosted risktoglobal public health and wellness promptedthe characterisation des specific Variants von Interest (VOIs) and Variants von Concern (VOCs),in stimulate toprioritise global monitoring andresearch, and ultimately to inform die ongoing response zu the covid19 pandemic. and its international networksof professionals are monitoring transforms to the virus dafür that if significantamino acidsubstitutions are identified, we can inform countries and the public about any changes that may beneeded torespondto the variant, and prevent its spread. Globally, systems have beenestablishedand are being strengthenedtodetect “signals” of potential VOIsor VOCs and assess this based on the risk make to global public health.National authorities may choose kommen sie designate other variants von local interest/concern.

Reducingtransmission v established und proven disease controlmethods/measures, and avoiding introductions into pet populations, are crucial aspects von the global strategy zu reduce ns occurrence des mutations that oase negative public wellness implications.

Current strategies and measures recommended von continue to work against virologe variants identified due to the fact that the start of ns pandemic.Evidence from multiple countries with considerable transmission von VOCs has actually indicated that public health und social measures(PHSM), consisting of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, schutz been effective in reducing covid19 cases, hospitalizations und deaths.National and local authorities room encouraged kommen sie continue strengthening existingPHSMandIPCmeasures. Authorities are also encouraged tostrengthen surveillance and sequencing capacities und apply a systematic approach kommen sie provide a representative indication von the extent of transmission des SARS-CoV-2 variants based on ns local context, und to detect unusual epidemiological events.

This content is tonnage updated on 22 October 2021.

Naming SARS-CoV-2 variants

The developed nomenclature systems zum naming and tracking SARS-CoV-2 genetic lineages von GISAID, Nextstrain und Pango space currently and will remain an use by scientists and in scientific research. Zu assist with public discussions des variants, that convened a group of scientists from the Virus evolution Working Group, the covid-19 reference activities network, to represent from GISAID, Nextstrain, Pango and additional experts an virological, microbial nomenclature and communication from number of countries und agencies to consider easy-to-pronounce and non-stigmatising labels zum VOI and VOC. At ns present time, this experte group convened von has recommended utilizing letters von the Greek Alphabet, i.e., Alpha,Beta,Gamma, Delta which will be easier und more practical zu be discussed über non-scientific audiences.

31 might 2021
Departmental news announces simple, easy-to-say labels zum SARS-CoV-2 Variants des Interest and Concern

SARS-CoV-2 Variants, functioning Definitions and Actions Taken

Given the continuousevolution von the virusthat leader toSARS-CoV-2 und theconstantdevelopments in ourunderstanding des the impactsof variants, these working interpretations may be periodically adjusted. When necessary, variants not otherwise meeting all criteria outlined bei these meanings may be designated together VOIs/VOCs, und those posing a diminishing hazard relative zu other turn variants might be reclassified, in consultation with ns Virus entstehen Working Group.

Variants von Concern (VOC)

Working definition:

A SARS-CoV-2variantthat meets the definieren of a VOI (see below) and, with a to compare assessment, has been demonstrated to be verbunden with one or more des the complying with changes punkt a level of globalen public health significance:

Increase in transmissibility or detrimental change in COVID-19 epidemiology; ORIncrease an virulence or change an clinical condition presentation; ORDecrease an effectiveness von public health and social procedures or obtainable diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics.

Currently designated Variants of Concern:


Pangolineage*GISAID cladeNextstraincladeAdditionalamino acid changesmonitored°Earliest documentedsamplesDate of designation


B.1.1.7 #


20I (V1)


United Kingdom,Sep-2020




GH/501Y.V2 20H (V2)+S:L18FSouth Africa,May-2020 18-Dec-2020


GR/501Y.V3 20J (V3) +S:681HBrazil,Nov-2020 11-Jan-2021


G/478K.V1 21A +S:417NIndia,Oct-2020 VOI: 4-Apr-2021VOC: 11-May-2021

*Includes every descendent lineages. The full list des Pango lineages kann be discovered here: ; weil das FAQ, visit:

° just found in a subset des sequences

# consists of all Q lineages (in the Pango nomenclature system, Q is an alias weil das B.1.1.7)

§ contains all AY lineages (in ns Pango nomenclature system, AY is an alias zum B.1.617.2); zum more information on AY lineages, please visit:

Actions taken von und Member States:

Primaryactions by oered.orgfor a potential VOC:

Comparative assessmentof different characteristicsandpublic andthe Virus entstehen Working Group.

If determined necessary, coordinate additional laboratory investigations through Member States und partners.

Communicate neu designations und findings v Member States und public through created mechanisms.

Evaluate that guidance through created mechanisms und update, if necessary.

Primaryactions über a Member State, if a VOC is identified:

Submitcomplete genome sequences and associated metadata kommen sie a publicly obtainable database, such as GISAID.

Report initial cases/clusters relevant with VOC infection to with the ihre mechanism.

Where volume exists and in coordination through the international community, perform field investigationsand laboratory assessmentsto enhance understanding von the potential impacts von the VOC on covid19 epidemiology, severity, effectiveness of public health and social measures,diagnostic methods, immune responses, antibody neutralization, or other verwandt, angemessen characteristics.

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Variants des Interest (VOI)

Working definition

A SARS-CoV-2variant :

withgenetic alters that room predicted or known to affect viruist characteristics such together transmissibility, condition severity, immune escape, diagnostic or therapeutic escape; ANDIdentified zu cause far-ranging community infection or multiple covid19 clusters, in multiple nations with increasing relative prevalence alongside enhancing number of cases over time, or other apparent epidemiological impacts kommen sie suggest in emerging risk to global public health.

Currently designated Variants des Interest:

oered.orglabel§Pangolineage*GISAID cladeNextstraincladeEarliest documentedsamplesDate of designation





Peru, Dec-2020

MuB.1.621GH21HColombia, Jan-202130-Aug-2021

*includes all descendent lineages. Die full list von Pango lineages tun können be discovered here:; zum FAQ, visit:

§Former VOIs right now designated together VUMs: Kappa: B.1.617.1; Iota: B.1.526; Eta: B.1.525; Epsilon: B.1.427/B.1.429. Previous VOIs no much longer designated as VUMs: Zeta: P.2; Theta: P.3

Actions taken über und Member States:

Primaryactions von a Member State, if anewpotential VOI is identified:

Inform through created nation or local Office reporting channelswith supporting die info about VOI-associated cases (person,place, time, clinical and other relevant characteristics).

Submit complete genome sequences und associated metadata kommen sie a publicly available database, such together GISAID.

Perform ar investigations kommen sie improve understanding des the potential impacts von the VOI on covid19 epidemiology, severity, effectiveness von public health and social measures, or other verwandt, angemessen characteristics.

Perform activities assessmentsaccording zu capacityor contact zum support to conduct activities assessments on die impact des the VOIon relevant topics.

Primaryactions by zum a potential VOI:

Comparative assessment of variant characteristics and public wellness risks by

If determined necessary, coordinated laboratory investigations v Member States and partners.

Review global epidemiology des VOI.

Monitor and track global spread des VOI

Reclassifying VOIs/ VOCs

A previously designated Variant of Interest (VOI) or Variant of Concern (VOC) which has actually conclusively demonstrated to no longer pose a significant added hazard to globalen public health and wellness compared zu other circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, can be reclassified.

This ist undertakenthrougha critical experte assessment, in collaboration with the Virus entstehen Working group of several criteria,such asthe observedincidence/relative prevalenceofvariantdetectionsamong sequenced samplesover timeand bolzen geographical locations,thepresence/absenceofother hazard factors, andany ongoingimpact on manage measures.

Mutation Profiles von VOC/VOIs

As part of’s assessment des circulating variants, a clean understanding von the amino acid substitutions that are characteristic von each variant ist needed. An collaboration through Erasmus medical Centre die below table was assembled zu summarize die spike protein amino mountain changes zum the existing VOCs und VOIs. For each variant, the profile von amino acid changes bei the Spike protein was created based upon the zuerst 1,000 genomes available in GISAID (genomes with less than 29,000 nucleotides und >5% b were excluded). Amino acid changes that room present in ≥ 85% des the sequences space shown. Des note, belang amino acid alters may be present in other regions von the SARS-CoV-2 genome, and not all amino mountain changes bei the spike protein are damit verbundenen to potential changes in the characteristics des the virologe variant.

VOI/VOC profiles of Spike amino mountain changes

Variants Under monitoring (VUM, formerly referred to as "Alerts zum Further Monitoring")

Working definition

A SARS-CoV-2 variantwith genetic changes that are suspected zu affect virus characteristics v some indication the it might pose a future risk, however evidence von phenotypic or epidemiological impact ist currently unclear, requiring magnified monitoring und repeat assessment pending new evidence.

Note: It zu sein expected that our understanding of the impacts of these variants may in der nähe des evolve,anddesignated Variants under Monitoring may be readily added/removed; therefore, labels will not be assigned at this time.FormerVOIs/VOCsmay, however,bemonitored for bei extended periodunder this category,andwill keep their assignedoered.orglabeluntil additional notice.

Currently designated Variants Under Monitoring

Pangolineage*GISAID cladeNextstraincladeEarliest documentedsamplesDate von designation
R.1GR -
Multiple countries,
B.1.466.2 GH - Indonesia,Nov-2020 28-Apr-2021
B.1.1.318GR-Multiple countries,Jan-202102-Jun-2021
B.1.1.519GR20B/S.732AMultiple countries,Nov-202002-Jun-2021

GR-Multiple countries,Jan-202116-Jun-2021
B.1.214.2G-Multiple countries, Nov-202030-Jun-2021

United States of America,
VOI: 5-Mar-2021
VUM: 6-Jul-2021

Multiple countries, May-2020



G20A/S.126AMultiple countries, May-202014-Jul-2021
B.1.620G-Multiple countries, november 202014-Jul-2021
C.1.2GR-South Africa, may 202101-Sep-2021
VOI: 4-Apr-2021
VUM: 20-Sep-2021
United States von America,
VOI: 24-Mar-2021
VUM: 20-Sep-2021
B.1.525§G/484K.V321DMultiple countries,Dec-2020
VUM: 20-Sep-2021
B.1.630GH-Dominican Republic, Mar-202112-Oct-2021

*includes all descendent lineages. The full list des Pango lineages kann be discovered here: ; for FAQ, you re welcome visit:

§Former VOIs currently designated together VUMs: Kappa: B.1.617.1; Iota: B.1.526; Eta: B.1.525; Epsilon: B.1.427/B.1.429. Former VOIs no much longer designated together VUMs: Zeta: P.2; Theta: P.3

Member state Actions:

Enhance efforts towards a an ext representative picture des circulating variants an the country. Submit finish genome sequences und associated metadata to a publicly easily accessible database, such together GISAID.Perform field investigations to improve understanding of the characteristics of the VUM on covid-19 epidemiology (infectivity, neutralization, severity etc.).Conduct laboratory investigations to understand the phenotypic implications des the VUMMonitor spread von VUM and interaction with other circulating variants zum potential zu outcompeting or thrive bei the presence von a known dominant VOC/VOI Actions:

Comparative assessment of variant characteristics and public health risks von and track global spread of VUM.

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